Billing & Collections Engine

A Billing and Collections Engine is a class of software that is prevalent in service provider industries, such as telecommunications, IaaS/SaaS, cable, satellite, utilities, and digital media providers. This is often referred to as Service Provider Billing, which is separate from ERP-based Invoicing and Payment engines.

Over the years, this class of billing engines has been called, among other things, telco billers, cloud billers, service provider billers, and subscription billers.

Billing and Collection Engine

As companies evolve the product offerings to include more dynamic relationships with their customers, service provider billing is necessary to support Usage, Recurring, and Non-Recurring charges that are common to these business models.

The Billing & Collection Engine sits in the center of the Monetization Ecosystem. As with most service-provider enterprises, billing touches more system domains and requires more application and data interfaces than any other. A strong billing system is the backbone of an effective monetization architecture, while a weak or incorrectly implemented billing system can be the bane of a company and cause serious issues both up- and downstream.

The Billing & Collections function is separated in three distinct areas:

Primary Databases

These databases house critical data schema.


These provide more detailed processing within the engine.

Integration Components

Tools such as API, ETL, and Workflow to process data into and out of the engine. These are dealt with as a separate domain.

Billing & Collection Engine Components

Billing Product Catalog Database

The Product Catalog, within the Billing and Collections Engine, documents the various products, pricing, discounting, and promotions that are needed to support the business.

The billing product catalog should demonstrate the billing view as it relates to product monetization strategies for a company. The billing product catalog typically works in coordination with ‘selling’ and ‘provisioning’ product catalogs to ensure products and services are sold properly, activated correctly, and billed accordingly. Coordination of these catalogs is a complex effort, but it is a cornerstone to a successful monetization architecture.

Billing & Rating Catalog Integrations

Venn2 Information needs to be captured at order time to be delivered to the billing system(s). Typically requires integration of the selling & billing product catalogs.


The billing and rating product catalog(s) Information required to be in sync between the billing system and network systems to ensure usage is properly accounted for and associated with the appropriate customer account.

Venn4 All products/services billed at what they were quoted/ordered. All active services being billed appropriately. All usage has an identified owner. Credit adjustments are minimized. Trouble tickets are minimized.


The Product Catalog Problem

The product catalog is a simple concept – it is a list of a company’s products and pricing. However, the waters muddy quickly as companies grow and product data starts innocently scattering throughout a myriad of applications and databases.

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Customer Billing Profile (Hierarchy) Database

If the product catalog supports the billing component of a company’s monetization strategy, it is the Customer Billing Profile where it truly comes to life. This is where the customer data resides. Minimally, this includes key objects such as Customer, Account, and Service Instance. In addition, the Customer Hierarchy will hold information such as bill format preference, several contacts, payment information, taxable status, and geographic information.

For example:

A customer may be Bob Jones, who has two accounts: one for his household, and one for his daughter in college. Each of the accounts has one or more active services.

Billing charges to Bob Jones tie to the product catalog and reside as Usage, Recurring, or Non-Recurring charges associated with these service instances.

The flexibility of the database to support the number and type of customer, account, and service combinations is key to ensure billing will be accurate and easy to understand for the customer. In addition, a strong yet flexible database provides scalability to the monetization ecosystem.

Simplified Billing Customer Hierarchy
Customer Hierarchy

Order Entry

Order Entry is the process for creating a new service for a customer. Often, this is the first and only service for a customer. In Business to Business (B2B) models, it is very common for customers to have multiple services and accounts, each requiring effective order entry to capture the necessary information to provision and bill for the service effectively.

It is important to capture the information in an efficient manner that provides a positive customer experience while gathering all the appropriate data at one time.

Order entry can be direct with a customer, performed by the customer, or it can be a ‘swivel chair’ exercise where the sales employee is entering the order from a previously generated quote or contract without direct interaction with the customer.

Here, the focus is on quality and completeness. The customer is not waiting on the line but is relying on the information being complete and correct to ensure accurate activation/provisioning and billing of the service.


A Subscription involves paying on a periodic basis for an ongoing product or service. In reality, it is a monetization strategy that encourages, by its structure, a customer purchasing the same product or service over and over for some period of time, or with no specified end date.

In the past, many people subscribed to a newspaper and had it delivered on a daily basis to their home. The delivery person collected directly from the subscriber by going door-to-door, and the subscription continued until the customer cancelled. The product was a bundle of printed paper, the delivery method was a kid on a bicycle, and the payment was made in cash when the consumer happened to be at home.

Today, a more common subscription would be an entertainment streaming service (Netflix, Spotify, etc.) with a digital network delivery method and payment made automatically via credit card on a specified day of the month with absolutely no human intervention involved.

This lack of human intervention enables a service provider to increase the value of the service often by simply increasing capacity. As you can imagine, the lack of human intervention also requires a great deal of automation and integration between the customer acquisition, ordering, provisioning, entitlement, billing, and collection systems. In the case of a newspaper boy, he performed all those functions. In the case of Netflix there are complex, typically independent systems that must be kept in sync to provide the level of service that a customer now demands – humans only get involved when there are problems that can’t be fixed automatically.

The beauty of the subscription model is that it is based on recurring charges that are essentially “set it and forget it.” The service can start as a free trial that automatically converts to a paid subscription if no action is taken. Once the consumer is accustomed to seeing a charge on a credit card statement, they may subscribe for long periods of time – whether or not they utilize the product or service. Since cancelling the service requires action on the part of the subscriber, the recurring revenue often continues long-term.

Subscription-based products or services can be a valuable part of a company’s monetization strategy when offered alone or as part of a blended product set that includes one-time purchases and usage-based services.


Usage processing tracks the consumption of something that can be measured. This can cover tracking or counting the consumption of something that may or may not have an associated billable component.

When the monetization strategy includes usage as a billable entity, usage processing determines when and how much to charge a customer for any individual unit being measured. There are often situations where services might include a charge for every unit used. Other situations include a certain number of units and then charge for any additional units based on a pricing structure or other variable factors related to a service or an individual account.

Units that come into the usage processing system should have some defined unit of measure or the unit type being charged for, such as hours, kilowatts, megabytes, minutes, units, tickets, etc. Having a proper unit of measure can be used for determining rates or just be labels that are used in invoices, reports, or presentations to the customer.

Usage processing is completed by one or more supporting systems depending on the complexity of the business case and the capability of the supporting systems. All usage processing will have at a minimum the ability to load usage and assign a currency rate. The actual rating of the usage records may be handled by a rating system, ERP, or billing system.

Usage processing systems can generally handle a wide variety of granularity between usage records being processed. In many cases, each discreet usage event will need to be tracked individually for analytical or rating purposes, but in other cases, usage may be aggregated and only sent to rating after the usage has been grouped together based on type, date, or some other factor.

Having the ability to monetize services based on usage allows customers to pay for the exact amount of consumption that was used and drives the customer closer to the intersection between the value received from a service and the amount of money spent to use a service.
In addition, heavy-use customers can be charged for the additional amount of resources being consumed.


Closely related to Billing, an Invoice represents the charges due, description of charges, method of payment, and terms of payment. Invoice, Bill, and Statement are terms that are often used incorrectly in the context of service provider billing.

In brief:
Invoice – official accounting term, defined above

Statement – semi-official accounting term, which is typically provided monthly or quarterly, that represents all of the activity for a given period, including previous balance due, payments, adjustments against previous invoices, new charges, and a new balance due. The typical cell phone or cable bill is technically a monthly statement, which includes information from one or more invoices.

Bill – informal term that can be used to describe an Invoice, Statement, or a guy named William.


Billing is the crucial process of evaluating a customer’s billing profile, and identifying the new charges that should be generated. These charges will be aggregated to generate an Invoice.

For many service providers, the billing output is a Statement in addition to an Invoice that aggregates all of the financial activity since a previous period. In these environments, Billing includes evaluation of payments and adjustments from previous Invoice/Statements to produce a comprehensive Statement, which includes a new invoice and an updated Balance due.

The billing process can be done on-demand, at customer inception, or at periodic intervals – most commonly monthly, but often quarterly or annually.


Entitlement is relatively new to the billing domain. Entitlement, in a billing context, is where the billing system is responsible for being a source of record for communicating whether a customer is entitled to use the service in the manner they are attempting – and whether there is a billable impact to what they are trying to do.

For example, if a monetization strategy is to allow a customer up to 10 downloads of a ringtone before they are charged $.50 per download, then the billing system may be invoked to quickly process a ringtone request and let the customer know that there may be a billing impact to this activity. This is a relatively new requirement, and the billing engine is not the only component that can deliver it, but it is becoming an important part of maintaining a positive customer experience in usage based monetization models.


The Prepaid model for billing is used in many industries – from telecom to health care. It is a monetization strategy built on the premise that it reduces risk to the provider, often in exchange for some incentive to the customer.

Implementation methodologies of the prepaid billing system are as varied as the industries that use them. Providers view prepaid products as everything from a customer paying in advance for a normal periodic service to complex entitlement for products that are dependent on time-of-day, day of the week, quality of service, or some other combination of factors.

In the simplest case, payment is taken to offset future products or services that will be delivered. The challenge to this model is how the cash be will handled and how the revenue will be recognized – typically either upon payment or upon provision/delivery of the services paid for.

In the prepaid entitlements world, the first item to consider is what system is tracking the entitlements and use of the product or service to which the customer is entitled. Complex entitlements are often managed by a combination of an entitlements engine and a real-time rating engine – one to track what has been used and one to track what is due. These implementations typically manage what happens when a customer consumes their prepaid amount and may have integrations with ordering and payment systems to increase the entitlement when it is nearing exhaustion. The other side of that interaction is what happens to unused capacity? The ability to rollover an entitlement to another period is often desirable to retain customers.

Another factor to consider in prepaid billing is what happens when the customer cancels the service. Prepaid agreements are often linked to a contract with some provision for cancellation fees and/or refunds. The billing system may need to respond by prorating charges or adding penalties.

The prepaid model can be a valuable monetization tool for the service provider, but it is not without extra cost and some risk.


Payments represent customers paying for the invoice or services that they received from a service provider. They can be one-time, upfront payments for a physical good, or they can occur on a periodic basis for a recurring or subscription based service. Recurring or subscription payments occur most often monthly; however, quarterly or annually are other common practices, and subsequently payment intervals.

Payments come in a variety of forms, most commonly:

Very typical in B2C and B2SMB industries, a credit or debit card is kept on file in a PCI compliant manner and recurring payments are processed on a periodic basis. Credit Card rejects for a variety of reasons are common and should be monitored carefully and proactively.

Still prevalent across all industries, most major service providers work with a Lockbox service provided by major banks to manage incoming check payments.

Automated Clearing House (ACH) is a form of electronic payments that are processed directly from the payer’s financial institution to the service provider’s.

Emerging payment methods including PayPal, Bitcoin, Apple Pay, Google Wallet, baseball cards, and beaver pelts.


Tax regulations vary greatly by jurisdiction, country, industry, and service type. Successful organizations often build revenues on more than one product offering or service line that take place in more than one region/tax jurisdiction. Bundled products, each potentially with unique tax regulations, can be a nightmare for tax managers to account for in a subscription revenue model. Companies unable to accurately calculate and bill for tax risk revenue leakage, face strong punishment and regulatory scrutiny.

Savvy tax engines enable companies to calculate the correct tax for the correct customers and services, which can be presented cleanly on a customer statement. Such offerings can be packaged inside the billing engine, or provided by a third party, relying on API integration to quickly and securely pass customer and tax information from one system to another.


Adjustments are changes to a customer’s accounts receivable, or balance. Adjustments that are in the customer’s favor end up being a credit to the A/R. Such adjustments are known as credit adjustments, credits, or, on occasion, credit memos.

In a billing context, billing engines often must handle pre- and post-billing adjustments.  Post-billing adjustments are typical, but many business models require pre-billing adjustments against a charge that has not yet been applied.  For example, if a cable customer experiences a problem with an on demand movie, they may call and complain and get a ‘pre-billing adjustment’ that will negate the charge that is placed on the invoice at the end of the month.

Another form of Credit adjustment is not an A/R transaction at all, but provides the customer with a service credit against future time periods or usage buckets.

Occasionally, an adjustment is made that is not in the customer’s favor. Known as a debit adjustment, this adds to the customer’s balance. Debit adjustments are pretty rare in most cases, but they can be used to correct erroneous bills or to handle instances such as a penalty for not returning a set-top box to a cable company. Some service providers have a concept of a dispute, which is simply a higher order object creating a case to be investigated that could lead to a credit adjustment.

Billing Operations

Billing Operations is the process of managing the various billing processes that are core to a billing system. The tasks and functions within billing operations includes managing billing runs, posting records to financial systems, monitoring and loading usage records, and managing other billing functions such as bill cycles.

The Billing Operations functions are typically performed by the billing administration team and will require a level of intervention based on the systems used to manage billing and billing functions.

ATG maintains a complete Billing Operations Map, which spans all tasks and responsibilities in managing a billing system and assigns those to the likely enterprise organizations that should be both responsible and accountable. Please contact an ATG consultant for more information by clicking here.

Credit Card Optimization

Credit Card Optimization can achieve the following goals:

  • Reduce credit card processing costs
  • Reduce risk of internal fraud
  • Increase security of customer PCI data
  • Update credit card information automatically

Cost reductions can be achieved by sending additional customer and transaction information with the credit card transactions to the credit card processor. Sending extra data may be referred to as enhanced data or Level # processing, where # corresponds to the level number.

There are three levels. With each increased level, the amount of additional transactional data is increased. While the specific data may vary slightly between credit card processors, a sample of possible data that may be requested by a processor for each level might include the following:

Level OneLevel TwoLevel Three

When additional credit card data is passed to the processor, the cost per transaction is generally reduced because the risk of fraud is also lessened and the likelihood of recovery is increased. Additional internal optimizations can be made to increase the security and limit the ability for internal fraud to take place. Credit card data should follow practices outlined in the Payment Card Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) to ensure controls are in place to reduce risk.

Additional optimizations can be made to reduce the sensitivity of the actual credit card data that is being stored in various systems. One such step is to tokenize credit card numbers so anyone viewing the token would have no value in actually stealing the token. The process of tokenization must be supported by the internal systems as well as the payment processor. When a credit card is submitted to the payment processor, a token is returned and is the actual value stored on file, instead of the credit card, for ongoing or future payments.

Account Updater is a feature supported by some systems – and most credit card processors – which allows credit card numbers and expiration dates to be updated automatically when a customer gets a new card issued. This can be extremely useful to maintain a low level of credit card failures and increase the overall customer experience as service continues uninterrupted, and the customer does not have to call with updated credit card information. Account updater even supports credit cards re-issued as a lost or stolen card.


Collection activities are undergone when a customer’s payment date is past due, and warrants effort from the business to collect cash. It is up to the business to define thresholds to begin collection activities, as not every customer payment may be worth pursuing the moment it is considered late. Metrics to trigger collection attempts are varied, including; time, account type, outstanding amount, age of outstanding charges, etc.

Collection activities aim to increase cash by collecting past due payments, and decrease the need for bad debt and allowance for doubtful account expenses. Quality collection software shortens the length of time needed to collect remaining balances owed. As delinquent balances are recovered, the FMS must be able to process and account for changes to the appropriate GL accounts quickly, allowing collections to move on to the next high value balance and accounting users to have current financial data.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue Recognition (Rev Rec) is defined in many ways by many different governing bodies with a seemingly endless list of considerations, rules, exceptions, and headaches. Put simply, revenue recognition principles exist to provide guidance to business owners on sustainable ways to manage money from business operations, and for investors to be able to have transparency to the financial health of a company.

At the core of revenue recognition law is the matching principle, an accrual based accounting principle mandating companies to associate expenses with related revenues consistent with the time periods each is incurred. Pairing revenues with expenses enables companies to more accurately understand their current financial health, whereas recording revenues without regard to expenses (or vice versa) does not paint a clear picture for business owners or investors.

Under US GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, created by the FASB), revenue is recognizable when four criteria are met:


Service providers often provide recurring services billed either in advance or arrears. Quality financial management systems must be able to accurately decipher between earned and deferred revenue, the related expenses, and then amortize the necessary values as service delivery occurs. With Rev Rec being a constantly evolving principle, systems and their users must remain nimble in order to comply with regulations, provide accurate information to business users, and fairly represent a company’s financial standing to stakeholders.

The rules for revenue recognition, and the how billing engines support them, are in flux.  Specifically, service provider customers are currently tackling complicated ASC 605-25 Multi-Element Arrangement requirements and ASC 606 Contracts with Customers requirements. The role of the billing engine in the overall revenue recognition process is changing as well, with the introduction of pure Revenue Recognition engines. The billing engine, Revenue Recognition engine, Financial Management System/GL, and often Excel, are components necessary to support the full requirements of service provider revenue recognition.

Customer Accounts Receivable (AR)

Receivables represent cash owed to a company for goods/services provided; thus, they have the potential to be a very large asset account. Maintained at the sub-ledger level, Customer AR is increased as goods and services are delivered, and decreased as payment is received for those services.

AR is a generic term used for receivables, and can be broken down into two flavors: billed and unbilled. Billed AR represents the dollar amount a customer has been billed for, whereas unbilled AR represents receivables which have not been billed to the customer. Though this distinction may or may not be relevant for a company, both billed and unbilled amounts represent an asset.

Accurate customer AR relies on billing and financial management systems to be in sync since bills generated from the billing engine directly impact receivables. Without harmony between the two, companies risk overstating/understating how much their customers owe them, jeopardizing both asset and revenue quality.


Selecting the Right Billing Solution

Everyone complains about their billing system, but often their actual need (and the dollar value associated with that need) do not match up with the expected costs of a new billing platform roll-out (software, implementation, conversion, roll-out, training, etc.). Billing implementations are long, often painful, and costly. Clients need to be absolutely precise and thorough in their justification for the new billing platform.

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Detailed: People | Process | Technology

All enterprise organizations except the marketing team have ownership in at least one process tied to the Monetization Ecosystem’s Billing and Collection Engine domain.


ATG maintains a set of 75 key business processes to support management of Customers and Revenue for Service Providers. Forty-two of these processes originate, or are impacted by the Billing and Collection Engine domain. Below are the key processes that are touched in this domain, categorized by the Organizational Unit that owns the process:

Sales Organization

Renewal Processing – the methods used to renew a customers services, may be manual or automated.

Customer Service Organization

End Customer Account Maintenance – the methods by which a customer can manage their own account details via customer portal, website, etc.

End Customer Self Help – the way a customer can resolve problems on their own.

End Customer Self Help (Mobile) – the way a customer can resolve problems on their own via a mobile platform.

Pro-Active Customer Notification: Success Focus (Recommendations, Advice of Charge, Overage Notifications) – exceeding customer expectations by using data and triggers to notify them of an opportunity or looming risk.

Renewal Processing – the methods used to renew a customers services, may be manual or automated.

Customer Success Organization

Customer Usage Monitoring – tracking and recording customer resource usage throughout a billing period and life cycle.

New Customer Onboarding – the process of creating a customer account, properly provisioning products and/or services, and communicating welcoming messages.

NPS/CSAT Monitoring – the process of tracking, reporting and following up on customer satisfaction metrics.

Retention/Churn Monitoring – the process of monitoring customer turnover.

Finance Organization

Collections/Treatment Processing – a business’ efforts to collect past due payment.

Commissions Processing – the process of tracking sales commissions and sales rewards programs.

Revenue Recognition Processing: Contract Line Item Segmentation – methods used to categorize contract items to ensure revenue is recognized properly.

Revenue Recognition Processing: Earned Trigger Processing – method for appropriately triggering revenue recognition events.

Tax Processing – methods used to streamline complicated taxation rules and regulations.

Finance – Billing Organization

Balance Management: Prepaid, Deposit, Rollover – business rules and processes surrounding the management of prepaid balances, deposits, and rollovers.

Bill Day Usage Processing – methods used to track consumption of usage units associated with a given billing period.

Bill Run Operations – tasks and functions associated with initiating the billing process.

Billing Setup Process – tasks and functions associated with setting up the billing processes for given products and services.

Billing/Invoice Processing: Recurring/Periodic – process for aggregating financial activities and adjustments for a given billing period and generating respective invoice.

Credit Card Optimization – the optimization of credit card success in order to reduce processing cost, risk, and fraud, as well as proactively updating credit card information automatically.

Credit Card Processing – methods to receive credit card payments including authorization, payment gateway, processing, interchange, and credit card success.

Daily Usage Processing – the method used to provide real-time usage or usage estimates to customers.

Dispute / Adjustment Processing – settling disputes/adjustments regarding customer payments or account.

Dunning Processing – the process a business goes through to collect past due payment from a customer.

Payment Processing – the steps taken to process different payment methods from customers.

Subscription Management – the processes a company uses to manage complex customer subscription attributes.

Product Organization

New Product Introduction Process – configuring attributes and introducing a new product or service to the product catalog.

New Product Introduction Process (Mobile) – configure attributes and introduce new products and services made available on mobile devices.

New Product Monetization Process – the configuration of pricing for a new product or service.

Bundled Product Introduction Process – configuring and introduction of a bundled product or service to the product catalog.

Promotion & Discount Introduction -the configuration of promotions and discounts of new products or services.

Trial Processing – configuration and management of products that do not bill at all during an agreed upon time frame, includes processes for provisioning and reporting

Entitlement Processing – management of active products and services within a customer account.

Legal Organization

Export Compliance Processing – managing and adhering to the federal and international export compliance requirements.

Operations Organization

Pro-active Customer Notification: Operations Focus (CC Expiry, Notification of Payment Received) – a proactive approach to notify customers of pertinent payment information.

IT Organization

Vendor Management of Monetization Ecosystem – oversight and communication duties of ecosystem software components and their vendors, including management of vendor road map and change logs and general relationship nurturing.

Maintenance and Oversight of Monetization Ecosystem – process around assuring that all touch points and connections in the ecosystem are optimized and working to their full potential.

Monitoring & Testing of Vendor Functional Releases – as ecosystem components release updates and patches, each is checked and tested to confirm all systems are working together as required by the business’ requirements.

Cross-Training of Monetization Ecosystem Components – process for training organizational resources on the appropriate software systems.

Security Oversight of Monetization Ecosystem – process for maintaining and controlling access and permissions to ecosystem components.

Data Stewardship Across Monetization Ecosystem
– process of assigning ownership and sources of truth for data within the organization.

All Organizations

Daily, Periodic, or Ad Hoc Reporting (Extraction, Load, Report, Dashboard) – movement of data between domains to create single source of truth for reporting and dash boarding.

There are a host of technologies available for companies to choose from when it comes to the Billing and Collection Engine domain.

From the huge, suite-based Lead-to-Cash solutions, down to much simpler recurring payment providers, there is a billing and collection engine out there to suit nearly any business case.

However, for most complex multi-channel service providers, the choices come down to these three categories of billing software:

  • On-Premise Service Provider Billing
  • Cloud Service Provider Subscription Billing
  • SFDC-Native Billing Solutions

Typically, the complexity of requirements drives the decision of which platform should be utilized. Careful consideration should be given to the following complexities:

  • Business Model
  • Product & Pricing
  • Selling Channel
  • Geographic Considerations
  • Financial Operation

For more information and a complete checklist, contact a representative at ATG.

Key Vendor Alert
The Billing & Collection Driver domain Key Vendors is divided into three software category types, which are segmented below.

Cloud Billing Key Vendors

Aria Billing Systems

Founded: 2003
HQ: San Francisco, CA
Company Type: Privately held
Cloud/On-Premise: Cloud

Aria Systems helps enterprises grow their recurring revenue businesses. Aria aids clients in taking advantage of each customer-driven event − known as revenue moments − with agile billing, active customer engagement, and the rapid deployment of new products and services. With Aria’s end-to-end active monetization platform, global brands can get to market faster with a wider variety of products and services, while maximizing customer satisfaction, retention, and lifetime value.

Their platforms includes:

  • Customer Acquisition
  • Managing Recurring Revenue
  • Maximizing Lifetime Value
  • Enterprise Grade Cloud

Aria Systems tends to target high-tech, media, communication, cloud, and finance companies that range from small and mid-sized businesses to global enterprises.

Constant Contact – online marketing company

Falck – service provider in the areas of healthcare, assistance, safety services, and emergency

Hootsuite – social media management systems for brand management

Pitney Bowes – provider of global eCommerce solutions, shipping and mailing products, location intelligence, customer engagement, and customer information management solutions

VMWare – provider of cloud and virtualization software and services


Founded: 2007
HQ: Foster City, CA
Company Type: Privately held
Cloud/On-Premise: Cloud

Zuora offers a wide variety of solutions in commerce, billing, and finance for recurring revenue businesses. These offerings include:

  • Subscription Management
  • CPQ
  • Ecommerce
  • Recurring Billing
  • Recurring Revenue
  • Global Payments

In addition to recurring revenue services, Zuora is the world’s leading provider of Relationship Business Management (RBM) services.

Zuora targets companies across all industries, from Healthcare to Cloud application companies. These businesses tend to be midsize, large, and enterprise level companies.

Perfect Patients – provider of patient website services for the healthcare industry

Dell – multinational computer technology company

Acquia – provider of SaaS enterprise products, services, and technical support

Xactly – cloud-based SaaS company providing enterprise software and services

DocuSign – electronic signature technology company

Zendesk – cloud-based software development company specializing in customer service platforms


Founded: 2008
HQ: Austin, TX
Company Type: Privately held
Cloud/On-Premise: Cloud

goTransverse powers leading-edge companies who push conventional boundaries with disruptive product and service offerings. The TRACT® platform supports any combination of one-time, subscription, and usage-based offerings with near real-time metering, rating and native revenue recognition. The TRACT® platform includes:

  • Billing and Receivables
  • Customer and Order Management
  • Product Catalog
  • Usage and Entitlement Management Solutions
  • Accounts Receivable Sub-Ledger
  • Reporting and Analytics
  • Administration and Security
  • Integrations and Connectors

The result is faster time to market, visibility into revenue streams, and top-line revenue growth.

goTransverse has a customer base which includes publicly traded and privately held companies typically technology-focused in cloud solutions, digital entertainment and media, Internet of Things (IoT), Machine-to-Machine (M2M), logistics, and hosting/managed services.

Hemisphere GNSS – provider of high-performance satellite positioning solutions for marine, land survey and mapping, construction, and agriculture

Amplifier – merchandising service provider

Demandware – software technology company that provides a cloud-based e-commerce platform and related services for retailers and brand manufacturers

NetSuite Monexa

Founded: 1998
HQ: Vancouver, BC
Company Type: Privately held
Cloud/On-Premise: Cloud

NetSuite/Monexa Services is a cloud-based billing platform enabling organizations to manage and profitably monetize their business relationships with customers. Monexa supports a wide variety of billing scenarios including:

  • Advanced Pricing & Bundling
  • Subscription Billing
  • Customer Portal
  • Billing Intelligence
  • Enterprise Integration
  • Customer Relationship Management
  • Secure Recurring Payment Processing
  • Security & Compliance

Monexa has enabled its customers to drive top-line growth, reduce billing costs and complexity, as well as improve customer relationships with a friendly and transparent billing experience.

NetSuite/Monexa tends to target high tech companies including ISP and telecommunication companies that range from mid-sized to large enterprises.

Cisco – multinational technology company

OpenTable – online real-time restaurant-reservation service

Pitney Bowes – provider of global eCommerice solutions, shipping and mail products, location intelligence, customer engagement, and customer information management solutions

Bell Mobility – CDMA, LTE, and HSPA+ based wireless network

AOL – multinational mass media corporation that develops, grows, and invests in brands and web sites


Founded: 2003
HQ: Belmont, CA
Company Type: Privately held
Cloud/On-Premise: Cloud

Vindicia‘s CashBox delivers the SaaS-based subscription billing and recurring payment platform that B2C and B2B digital goods and service providers need to thrive. It overcomes the drawbacks of traditional subscription billing approaches for digital goods to support the entire subscription lifecycle. Vindicia CashBox aids in:

  • Increase subscription revenue with improved customer acquisition
  • Improve customer satisfaction with self-service capabilities and reduced billing hassle
  • Accelerate the growth of your customer base with higher retention rates
  • Refine your subscription business model with data-driven insights

Vindicia tends to target media & content subscription-based companies, as well as online service companies (SaaS/software).

Allrecipes.comonline recipe and shopping subscription service.

CBUSA – buying group for commodity and specialty building material.

Mind Candy – online gaming company.


SFDC-Native Key Vendors


Founded: 2010
HQ: Palo Alto, CA
Company Type: Public
Cloud/On-Premise: Cloud

SteelBrick helps companies accelerate growth by automating quoting, contracting, and ordering processes. SteelBrick Billing, CPQ, and Quote to Cash are built 100% on the Salesforce1 cloud and mobile platform.

  • Configure Price Quote (CPQ) – Configure products and pricing, maximize cross-sells and up-sells, and deliver quotes quickly
  • Propose & Contract – Automate add-on orders and quickly generate proposals, contracts, and renewals.
  • Bill & Collect – Easily process orders, invoices and payments, and recognize revenue promptly.


SteelBrick’s target market are companies operating within the Software, Manufacturing, Networking/Storage, High Tech Equipment, Healthcare/Medical Devices, and Business Services industries.

Marketo – a leader in digital marketing software and solutions

Ametek – manufacturer of precision detectors, nuclear instrumentation, analysis software, and systems.

Nimble Storage – a provider of a flash storage platform

RAE Systems – global provider of gas and radiation detection systems

Optivia Biotechnology – a leading provider of high quality transporter assay services


Founded: 2006
HQ: San Mateo, CA
Company Type: Privately held
Cloud/On-Premise: Cloud

Apttus develops cloud-based quote and renewals management software. Apttus provides Quote-to-Cash, Configure, Price, Quote (CPQ) and Contract and Revenue Management solutions using SaaS applications and modules. Apttus utilizes the Salesforce1 platform to automate business functions and drive the business process between the buyer’s interest in a purchase and the realization of revenue. Applications include Quote-to-Cash Intelligence (Analytics), E-Commerce, Configure Price Quote (CPQ), Renewals, Contract Management and Revenue Management.

  • Configure, Price, Quote – Intelligently configure, price and quote new deals, sales and renewals within the Salesforce platform to realize bigger deals, shorter sales cycles and higher win rates
  • Contract Management – Improve contracting responsiveness, efficiencies and oversight while reducing risk and cost
  • Revenue Management – Track revenue from initial opportunity to recognized revenue, reduce leakage by managing rebates, revenue schedules and royalties

Apttus’ target market consists of companies of any size across many industries looking to automate or streamline their billing process while using the Salesforce platform.

DocuSign – a Digital Transaction Management network

CenturyLink – a global communications, hosting, cloud and IT service company

Salesforce – a global leader in CRM and cloud computing

Akamai Technologies – a leader in Content Delivery Network services


Founded: 1999
HQ: San Jose, CA
Company Type: Privately held
Cloud/On-Premise: Cloud

Intacct provides cloud ERP software for finance and accounting business solutions. These solutions are preferred financial applications for AICPA, and are in use by more than 8,500 businesses. All of Intacct’s solution offerings are delivered via cloud computing.  Intacct’s offerings include features such as:

  • Accounting
  • Contract management
  • Revenue management
  • Project and fund accounting
  • Vendor management
  • Financial consolidation
  • Financial reporting applications

Intacct is in partnership with RecurSoft by Sererra, a billing and subscription service offering.

Intacct tends to target start-up businesses to global enterprises. These companies vary in industries from software to crowdfunding companies.

Kayak – online travel search engine

Indiegogo – international crowdfunding website

Puppet Labs – information technology automation software company

Marketo – marketing automation software company

Textura – provider of construction management software tools


Founded: 2006
HQ: San Francisco, CA
Company Type: Privately held
Cloud/On-Premise: Cloud

ChikPea is a company specializing in end-to-end SRM (Subscriber Relationship Management) solutions for recurring bill cycle companies. Their key offerings are:

  • TOM (Telecom Order Management)
  • TelQuote – Telecom Focused CPQ
  • O2B (Order to Billing)
  • Configurator – CPQ
  • SRM (Subscriber Relationship Management)

These solutions are 100% Native.

ChikPea targets subscriber businesses of all sizes. These companies conduct business in a wide variety of industries including telecom, technology, marketing, finance, life sciences, and services.

SureTax – provider of tax software to the telecom industry

EnablePath – a leader in cloud-based consulting

PayPal – a worldwide online payment company

Western Union – American financial services and communications company

Kenandy – SaaS company offering a cloud ERP platform

On-Premise Key Vendors


Founded: 1982
HQ: Chesterfield, MO
Company Type: Public
Cloud/On-Premise: On-Premise

Amdocs is the market-leader in customer experience software solutions and services for the world’s largest communications, entertainment and media service providers. Amdocs solutions, including BSS, OSS, network control and optimization, coupled with processional and managed services, have accelerated business value for their customers by:

  • streamlining complex operating environments
  • reducing costs
  • speeding time to market for new products and services

Amdocs has more than 24,000 employees serving customers in over 90 countries. Listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, Amdocs had revenue of $3.6 billion in fiscal 2014.

Amdocs tends to target companies within telecommunications, cable, and satellite providers.

Sprint – provider of wireless plans, cell phones, and accessories

Sensis – cross-cultural advertising agency with digital at its core

Pelephone – telecommunications company based in Israel

Cablevision – cable television company with systems serving areas surrounding New York

Astro – direct broadcast satellite pay TV service based in Malaysia


Founded: 1999
HQ: London, UK
Company Type: Privately held
Cloud/On-Premise: On-Premise

Cerillion Technologies is a UK based company providing billing, charging, and customer management system solutions. Their offerings include:

  • Cloud solutions (SaaS)
  • Managed services
  • On-premise enterprise software

Cerillion also offers subscription management and usage-based services. Their key offering is Cerillion Skyline, a flexible and complete solution for service provider companies.

Cerillion targets companies of all sizes in a wide range of industries including telecommunications, finance, utilities, and transportation services.

M2 Group – Australia’s largest telecommunications provider

Relish – a London 4G communications service company

Columbus – provider of cable television services

Gibtelecom – a telecommunications company providing fixed line, mobile, internet, and business solutions

yu Mobile – provider of a full suite of mobile solutions


Founded: 1985
HQ: Rensselaer, NY
Company Type: Privately held
Cloud/On-Premise: On-Premise

Commsoft is a software development company providing billing solutions to over 50 communication companies. This company specializes in end-to-end billing and OSS (open-source software) solutions. Their key offering is iCommVergence, an automated OSS/BSS solution. This offering handles:

  • Billing
  • Customer Care
  • Rating
  • Trouble Management
  • Payment
  • POS Functions

In addition to billing and OSS/BSS, Commsoft offers client support, professional services, and managed IT services. Commsoft is also a trusted partner of IBM.

Commsoft tends to target telecommunication, subscription based companies. These businesses range from midsize to enterprise level companies.

Pioneer Communications – internet, cable TV, phone, and tech center service provider

Innovative Communication Corporation – provider of landline and mobile telephone services

Matanuska Telephone Association – a South-Central Alaskan telephone service company

CSG International

Founded: 1994
HQ: Meridian, CO
Company Type: Public
Cloud/On-Premise: On-Premise

CSG International’s solutions and services support over 500 clients worldwide. Our portfolio includes digital commercialization, convergent charging, customer management, billing, post-event and active mediation, service activation, comprehensive wholesale settlement, as well as marketing intelligence and analytics.

  • An extensive portfolio. Our market-leading solutions and services support your business objectives, including revenue management, customer interaction management, and analytics and intelligence.
  • Industry knowledge and expertise. We have experience across a wide range of vertical markets—including cable television and direct broadcast satellite, fixed-line and mobile telecommunications, financial services, utilities, media/entertainment and more.
  • Flexible solution delivery models. We’ve designed our solutions to fit your individual business objectives, including on-premise software, service bureau, and managed services, all delivered and supported by our global professional services team.
  • Diverse experience. We’ve deployed solutions in emerging, established and mature markets worldwide for more than 30 years.

CSGI tends to target large communication service providers, as well as media, entertainment, and utilities companies.

Comcast – US cable and broadband provider

ESPN – sports and entertainment provider

Verizon – leading US wireless communications company

Minnesota Power and Light – utilities provider


Founded: 1976
HQ: Stockholm, Sweden
Company Type: Public
Cloud/On-Premise: On-Premise

Ericsson is the world’s leading provider of technology and services to telecom operators. With more than 110,000 professionals, and customers in 180 countries, they combine global scale with technology and services leadership. Their services, software and infrastructure – especially in mobility, broadband and the cloud – are enabling the communications industry and other sectors to do better business, increase efficiency, improve their users’ experience and capture new opportunities. Ericsson:

  • Is established in 180 countries
  • Has more than 100,000 employees
  • Holds more than 37,000 patents
  • Has a global customer network of more than 2 billion
  • Systems handle 40% of mobile calls

Ericsson tends to target operators, enterprises, and the media industry who are seeking mobile and fixed network infrastructure, telecom services, software, broadband, and multimedia solutions.

Frontier Airlines – low-cost carrier airline in the United States

Cygate – system integration services provider in Sweden

ITV – commercial television network in the UK

Swisscom – telecommunications provider in Switzerland

Vodafone – multinational telecommunications company based in London


Founded: 1987
HQ: Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
Company Type: Private
Cloud/On-Premise: On-Premise

Huawei’s Convergent Billing Solution (CBS) is an end-to-end convergent charging and billing solution for all types of networks, services and subscribers. As a unified system aimed to reduce TCO, this solution allows telecom operators to have a faster time to market and increase their revenue. It is a flexible charging and billing engine that help operators expand market share through personalized marketing activities, improve operational efficiency through express billing, and reduce costs. More importantly, it helps deliver a high level of QoE through real-time service and hence ensure customer loyalty.

Huawei tends to target Asian and European digital and telecommunication companies.

British Telecommunications Group – a British multinational telecommunications services company

Orange – a French multinational telecommunications corporation

TalkTalk Group – provider of pay television, telecommunications, Internet access, and mobile network services to businesses and consumers in the United Kingdom


Founded: 1993
HQ: Waltham, MA
Company Type: Public
Cloud/On-Premise: On-Premise

Netcracker specializes in innovative end-to-end Business Support Systems & Operations Support Systems (BSS/OSS) solutions that enable service providers to operationalize next-generation connectivity, maximize the convergence of Network and IT, monetize content, and deliver a compelling customer experience. Founded in 1993, Netcracker became a subsidiary of NEC Corporation in 2008 and acquired the Convergys Information Management Division in 2012.  In February of 2015, Netcracker and NEC launched a new initiative to address the opportunities associated with SDN and NFV for service providers. Their product suite covers:

  • Customer & Partner Management
  • Revenue Management
  • Operations Management
  • Orchestration
  • Big Data Analytics
  • Cloud Platform
  • Virtual Functions, Management & Infrastructure

In addition, they offer a full suite of Managed Services and Professional Services.

Netcracker’s customers span five continents and include service providers, enterprises and government agencies.

Swisscom – Telecommunications provider in Switzerland

Vivacom – Telecommunications provider in Bulgaria

Turkcell – Mobile phone operator in Turkey

Telefonica – Global telecommunications and broadband provider

Bright House Networks – American media company

Oracle Financial Services

Founded: 1977
HQ: Redwood Shores, CA
Company Type: Public
Cloud/On-Premise: On-Premise

Oracle offers an optimized and fully integrated stack of business hardware and software systems. Oracle engineers hardware and software to work together in the cloud and in your data center–from servers and storage, to database and middleware, through applications. Oracle specializes in the following:

  • Primavera
  • People Soft
  • JDE Systems
  • BEA Systems
  • Hyperion
  • Retek
  • Siebel

Oracle has more than 380,000 customers—including 100 of the Fortune 100—and with deployments across a wide variety of industries in more than 145 countries around the globe.

Oracle tends to target companies of all sizes who are seeking integrated, industry-specific solutions engineered to address complex business processes across a wide range of industries.

Accenture – multinational management consulting, technology services, and outsourcing company

Epsilon – global marketing company

Haliburton – multinational corporation offering oil field services in more than 80 countries

Norfolk Southern – trade and transportation company specializing in intermodal networks and railways

SunGard Availability Services – provider of critical production and recovery services to global enterprise companies


Founded: 1998
HQ: Boca Raton, FL
Company Type: Public
Cloud/On-Premise: On-Premise

RevChain Solutions is a company headquartered in Boca Raton, FL, specializing in enterprise billing and flexible customer care solutions.  Their offerings include features such as:

  • System Availability
  • High Data Integrity
  • Configurability & Extensibility
  • Integration & Migration

In addition to billing and customer care solutions, RevChain offers email marketing through a web-based management tool as well as software development solutions.

RevChain‘s target market appears to be communications and technology companies ranging from mid- to large-sized.

Bell – telecommunications and media company headquartered in Canada

Windstream Communications – provider of voice and data network communications

ETB – leading Columbian telecommunications company

Rockwell Collins – provider of avionics and information technology systems and services

Integra – a business voice and data solutions company


Founded: 1972
HQ: Walldorf, Germany
Company Type: Public
Cloud/On-Premise: On-Premise

SAP is a market leader in enterprise application software, helping companies of all sizes and industries run more efficiently. SAP empowers people and organizations to work together more resourcefully and use business insight more effectively to stay ahead of the competition. They offer solutions in the following categories:

  • Analytics
  • Context & Collaboration
  • Customer Relationship Management
  • Data Management
  • Enterprise Management
  • Financial Management
  • Human Capital Management
  • Product Lifecycle Management
  • Supply Chain Management
  • Supplier Relationship Management
  • Technology Platform

SAP applications and services enable more than 296,000 customers in 190 countries to operate profitably, adapt continuously, and grow sustainably.

SAP targets customers of all sizes and in all industries to assist in generating more value with SAP technology, software, and services.

Day & Zimmermann – specializes in construction / engineering, staffing and defense

Serco Group – outsourcing company that operates public and private transport and traffic control, aviation, military weapons, detention centers, prisons and schools on behalf of its customers

Wholesale Sports Outdoor Outfitters – outdoor outfitter

Evoshield – specializes in performance-driven sports protection with multi-sport applications

Harlequin Sales Corp. – publisher of romance novels


Vendor Risk & the Salesforce Ecosystem

Twenty-seven years in CRM, CPQ, and Billing have taught me a few things. First, don’t talk about your job at a cocktail party. Trust me, they are not interested in the latest bundling strategies in the mid-market, Software-As-A-Service space.

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